Testing plays a crucial role in software development, and it’s important and recommended to start it as early as possible. Starting testing in early days can help get the useful perspective on development lifecycle. Moreover, devoting some thought to the entire lifecycle including feedback from users is worthwhile and may influence the future of the solution prominently.
As we said, testing is an integral part of software development and failure to right testing may lead to failed products. It is very essential to have a right testing methodologies and testing plans in place to ensure robust, scalable and stable deliverables in a defined timeline. Standard development processes and methodologies provide a set of testing mechanisms, which must be integrated in the product development lifecycle. These processes and mechanisms start from rigorously testing a very small of piece of code to testing the whole application. Let’s take a look on types of software testing methodologies:
1) Unit Testing
Unit Tests is the most basic testing mechanism at the developer’s end. This includes very small and well defined scope. In Unit testing, very small unit of functionality is focused and code is segregated from any outside interaction or any dependency on any module. It only deals with interaction of the code with memory only and does not cover any interaction with network, database or file systems. It provides a simple and easy way to check smallest possible units of code to ensure whether the units can work perfectly in isolation as well. However, further check of these units is required when they are combined to ensure they work in a cohesive manner which requires further types of tests.
2) Integration Testing
Integration Test is the next important set of tests at the developer’s end. They provide an internal mechanism to test the interoperation of very small units. Integration test involves rigorously testing the modules and test cases, which access network, databases and file systems. They reveal out the concerns associated with network modules or databases and most importantly show the connections between small units of code. Because, mostly when the units are combines together many issues arises. As while testing Unit A might not giving data accurately to the Unit B and these types of issues can be checked through Integration Tests.
3) Functional Testing
After the Integration tests, higher level of test processes starts. And, Functional Tests is the first one to start with. Functional tests check for the appropriateness of the output with respect to the pre-defined input in the specification. In functional tests, not much stress is given on intermediate modules but more focus is laid on the final output delivered.
4) System Testing
System testing is done to ensure that whether the product or software is feasible in different environments (e.g., Operating Systems, different phone models etc) or not. It is done with full system implementation and environment.
5) Stress Testing
Stress testing is done to evaluate how system behaves under unfavorable circumstances. It is conducted at beyond limits of the specifications.
6) Smoke Testing
Smoke Tests word came from the electronics where a mistake means the circuit board emitting smoke. After functional tests are rigorously performed, a simple test is done from the start, which initiates with a fresh installation and adding fresh input values. And, if any crashes arise, then it represents the trouble in development.
7) Regression Testing
Regression Tests is not a part of whole testing process. It is done depending on the requirements, whenever any complex bugs are found in a development cycle, typically which affect the key areas of the development system, regression tests are done to ensure re test of all the modules, which in turn helps in identifying the exact bug/bugs in the system
8) Acceptance Testing
Acceptance test is the final level of test plan. Testing team rigorously checks each and every feature or module from the user’s perspective and marks the output with accepted or rejected symbols. These tests ensure testing of application from end user’s perspective like ease of using a product, placement of each and every feature, identifying crashes after going through a certain flow etc. The results of acceptance tests are very subjective in nature and its purpose is to detect the exact issue.
9) Usability Testing
Usability testing is performed from the client’s perspective. It is done to evaluate whether the GUI is user-friendly or not? How easily product’s work? How proficiently it can be worked while satisfying all the criteria? And, how pleasing its design is?
10) Beta Testing
Beta testing is done by end users or a team other than its development, or releasing full pre-version of the product, which is commonly known as beta version. It is done to cover unexpected errors.
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